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About LED


What "s LED?



LEDs are Light Emitting Diode, is an abbreviation of semiconductor solid Light-emitting devices. Using solid semiconductor chip as luminescence materials, in a semiconductor compound released by carrier occurred excess energy and cause photon emission, emitting directly red, orange, yellow, green, green, blue, purple and white light. LED products is to use LED as light sources making out of high-tech products.


History of LEDs

For more than 30 years, LED have been used in various industrial applications .But LED are much older.

1907: Henry Joseph Round discovers the physical effect of electroluminescence. But as he is working on a new radio direction finding method for marine vessels this discovery is initially forgotten.

1962: The first red luminescence diode, type GaAsP, is launched.

1971: LED in other colors are available: green, orange, yellow. There are continual improvements in the output and effectiveness of all LEDs.

1993: Highly efficient InGaN diodes emitting in the blue and green spectrum are demonstrated. The conditions for creating white light are met.

1995: The first LED with white light created by luminescence conversion is launched.






For more than 30 years, LED have been used in various industrial applications from switch cabinets to measuring instruments, in consumer products such as HiFi- equipment, telephones or personal computers, in traffic signal installations for road and railway or in indoor and outdoor automotive lighting.


In the last few years the efficacy of colored LED increased up to amazing 100 lm/W and more depending on the color and driving conditions. A trend which will proceed in the future.
As today's white LED reach efficacies up to 40-100 lm/W (efficiency depends on color temperature and color rendering) - they are more and more used in general lighting. In emergency lighting as well as decorative lighting, they are already established in implementation area. Today, also applications such as illuminated advertising benefit from the advantages of LED, particularly by using colored LED-modules. 


LED Technics


A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor diode that emits incoherent narrow-spectrum light when electrically biased in the forward direction.

Basic principles of LED (Light Emitting Diodes)

1.An LED consists of several layers of semiconducting material

2.When an LED is operated with DC voltage light is generated in the active layer

3.The generated light is radiated directly or by reflections

4.In contrast to lamps, which emit a continuous spectrum, an LED emits light in a certain color

5.The color of the light depends on the used material

6.Two systems of material (AllnGaP and InGaN) are used in order to produce LED with a high luminance in all colors from blue to red and also in white (luminescence conversion). Therefore different voltages are necessary in order to operate the diode in conducting direction 



Light Colors:


LED in various Light Colors. Here is reference:



Luminous flux  -- Wavelength Graph:




Typical Color temperatures for white light LED



 Advantages of LEDs:



Innovative LEDs offer a number of technological advantages:

1.Low energy consumption

2.Extremely long life

3.Very low early failure rate

4.Smallest dimensions

5.Shock and vibration resistant

6.No ultra-violet or infrared radiation

7.Low wattage

8.Almost no heat generation

9.Directed light - Lambertian emitter with beam angle 120°

10.High color saturation


Main benefits for users:

1.Creative design options due to a multitude of available colors, compact dimensions and flexible modules

2.High economical efficiency due to low energy consumption, long life and low maintenance cost

3.Highest reliability even under difficult conditions








LED for general lighting:



The future of light?

Mainly white light is used for general lighting applications. The white LED with efficacies from 85 - 125 lm/W – already outperform tungsten halogen products – has been available for a few years. The operating principle consists of an LED-chip whose blue radiation excites yellow fluorescent particles mixed with the resin. The emission of blue and yellow light finally results in white light.




Lifetime of LEDs

Although the lifetime of LED is long, it depends on various influencing factors.

1.Thermal management

LED get hot as well! With clever heat dissipation the LED Lifetime can be enlarged dramatically. 

An LED emits light but it hardly emits any UV or IR radiation; the emitted light is cold - illuminated objects are not exposed to heat. LED lighting is therefore ideal for illuminating sensitive objects - for example in museum or shops.
The LEDs themselves (and therefore the entire module) are heated up however by the process by which light is produced. This heat must be transported away from the LEDs.

The life of an LED depends on the temperature at which it is operated.

The cooler, the higher the lifetime, the brighter the LEDs.


 2.Impacts on Lifetime - Energy Consumption

Also LEDs consume electricity!

The more output is required from an LEDs ,the more electricity is consumed. But around 30% of the energy is converted into light. At around 45 lm/W and more, LEDs are already extremely efficient light sources.

A word of caution, however - LEDs of certain colors, such as red, are particularly efficient and are often cited in comparisons.

The more current, the hotter, the shorter the lifetime.


3.Impacts on Lifetime - LED in the exterior area


 LEDs are not waterproof!

1)     LEDs are robust, insensitive, vibration-proof and shatter-proof. If they are used correctly, moisture is also not a problem. It is not the LED but various metal parts, connectors and electronic components on LED modules that are sensitive, may corrode and lead to failure of the module.

2)     LED modules must be protected against environmental influences so they achieve their rated design life. Water, moisture and spray must be kept away from the components.

3)     IP protection, a casing or selective protection from an appropriate coating must be provided.



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